Where Are the Marriage Vows in The Bible?

Marriage is a sacred institution that is highly valued in Christianity. One of the key components of Christian marriage is the exchange of marriage vows. Marriage vows are promises that a couple makes to each other during the wedding ceremony, and they serve as a covenant between the two individuals. In this article, we will explore the biblical foundation of marriage vows and examine where they can be found in the Bible.

Old Testament

A. Genesis 2:24

The first mention of marriage in the Bible is in Genesis 2:24, which states that “a man shall leave his father and his mother and hold fast to his wife, and they shall become one flesh.” This verse establishes the foundation for the marital bond and the idea that marriage is a lifelong commitment.

B. Exodus 22:16-17

Exodus 22:16-17 discusses the case of a man seducing a virgin who is not engaged. The passage states that the man must pay a bride price and must take the woman as his wife. This passage implies that the act of marriage is more than just a physical union but also involves a covenantal commitment between the two individuals.

C. Deuteronomy 22:13-21

Deuteronomy 22:13-21 outlines the consequences of a woman who is found not to be a virgin on her wedding night. The passage highlights the importance of sexual purity in marriage and the value that is placed on the covenantal bond between husband and wife.

D. Ruth 1:16-17

In the book of Ruth, Ruth makes a vow to her mother-in-law Naomi, stating, “Where you go I will go, and where you stay I will stay. Your people will be my people and your God my God” (Ruth 1:16). This passage shows the importance of making a commitment to one’s spouse and family, and the value of keeping one’s word.

E. Proverbs 2:16-17

Proverbs 2:16-17 describes the woman who is faithful to her husband and keeps the covenant of marriage. This passage emphasizes the importance of fidelity in marriage and the significance of keeping the marriage vows.

New Testament

A. Matthew 5:31-32

Matthew 5:31-32 discusses the issue of divorce and highlights the seriousness of the marriage covenant. Jesus states that “anyone who divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, makes her the victim of adultery, and anyone who marries a divorced woman commits adultery.” This passage underscores the importance of honoring one’s marriage vows and the significance of the marriage covenant.

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B. Matthew 19:4-6

Matthew 19:4-6 quotes Genesis 2:24 and emphasizes the idea that marriage is a covenantal relationship established by God. This passage emphasizes the significance of the marital bond and the value of the marriage covenant.

C. Mark 10:6-9

Mark 10:6-9 is a parallel passage to Matthew 19:4-6 and emphasizes the same idea that marriage is a covenantal relationship established by God. This passage highlights the importance of the marital bond and the value of the marriage covenant.

D. 1 Corinthians 7:1-40

1 Corinthians 7:1-40 discusses the issue of marriage and singleness. The passage emphasizes the importance of sexual purity in marriage and the value of the marital bond. The passage also highlights the idea that marriage is a lifelong commitment that should not be taken lightly.

E. Ephesians 5:22-33

Ephesians 5:22-33 discusses the relationship between husband and wife and the importance of love and respect in marriage. The passage emphasizes the idea that the husband should love his wife as Christ loved the church, while the wife should submit to her husband as the church submits to Christ. This passage has been interpreted by some as a call for unconditional obedience by the wife, but others interpret it as a call for mutual submission and respect between both partners in the marriage.

Historical and Cultural Context

Marriage vows and customs have varied widely throughout history and across different cultures. Understanding the historical and cultural context of marriage vows in the Bible can help shed light on their meaning and significance.

A. Jewish wedding customs

In ancient Jewish culture, the father of the groom would arrange a marriage contract between the groom and bride, which included the terms and conditions of the marriage. The groom would then offer a bride price to the bride’s father in exchange for the bride. The bride would then prepare herself for the wedding ceremony, which typically took place in the groom’s home. During the ceremony, the groom would give the bride a cup of wine to drink, symbolizing their union.

B. Roman wedding customs

In ancient Rome, marriage was viewed as a legal contract between two families. The bride and groom would exchange vows in front of witnesses, and the bride’s father would offer the groom a ring as a symbol of his acceptance of the marriage contract. The groom would then give the bride a ring as a symbol of their union.

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C. Greek wedding customs

In ancient Greece, marriage was seen as a partnership between two families. The bride and groom would exchange vows in front of witnesses, and the groom would offer the bride a dowry as a symbol of his commitment to the marriage. The couple would then participate in a wedding feast, which could last for several days.

D. Marriage vows in the early Church

In the early Church, marriage was seen as a sacred covenant between a man and a woman. The wedding ceremony would typically take place in a church, and the couple would exchange vows in front of a priest or bishop. The couple would promise to love and honor each other for the rest of their lives, and to remain faithful to each other until death.

E. Development of modern marriage vows

Modern marriage vows have developed over time, and often include language that reflects the cultural and religious traditions of the couple getting married. Some couples choose to write their own vows, while others opt for traditional vows that have been used for generations.

Interpretation and Application

Interpreting and applying the meaning of marriage vows in the Bible can vary depending on one’s perspective and beliefs.

I. Literal interpretation of marriage vows in the Bible

Some people believe that marriage vows should be interpreted literally, as a binding contract between two people in the eyes of God. This view emphasizes the importance of keeping one’s promises and staying committed to the marriage, even in difficult times.

II. Historical and cultural interpretation of marriage vows in the Bible

Others interpret marriage vows in light of their historical and cultural context, recognizing that customs and traditions surrounding marriage have changed over time. This view emphasizes the need to understand the original meaning and intent of marriage vows in order to apply them to modern relationships.

III. Modern interpretation and application of marriage vows in the Bible

In modern times, marriage vows are often seen as a public declaration of one’s commitment to their partner. Many couples choose to personalize their vows, using language that reflects their unique relationship and values.

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IV. Role of marriage vows in Christian marriage

For Christians, marriage vows are seen as a sacred covenant between a man and a woman, with God as the witness. The vows are a promise to love and honor each other, to remain faithful to each other, and to seek God’s guidance and support throughout the marriage.

Role of marriage vows in secular marriage

Even in secular marriages, marriage vows serve an important purpose. They are a public declaration of commitment and intention to build a life together, to love and support each other through good times and bad, and to work through any challenges that may arise in the relationship. Marriage vows in secular marriages may be more personalized and less structured than those in religious marriages, but they still hold significant meaning for the couple.

In fact, many secular wedding ceremonies incorporate elements from religious wedding ceremonies, including the exchange of vows. The couple may choose to write their own vows or use traditional vows that have been adapted to suit their personal beliefs and values.

Marriage vows in secular marriages can also help to establish a strong foundation for the relationship. By openly declaring their commitment to one another, couples can set expectations for the future and establish a shared sense of purpose and direction. This can be particularly important in navigating challenges such as career changes, family dynamics, and financial struggles.

Additionally, marriage vows can serve as a reminder of the promises that were made on the wedding day. When couples face difficulties or disagreements in their marriage, returning to the vows they made can help to refocus their efforts and remind them of the importance of their commitment to one another.

In conclusion, while marriage vows have a strong foundation in religious traditions and beliefs, they hold significance in both religious and secular marriages. They serve as a public declaration of commitment and intention to build a life together, establish a strong foundation for the relationship, and provide a reminder of the promises made on the wedding day. Whether religious or secular, the exchange of marriage vows remains a powerful and meaningful part of the wedding ceremony.

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